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Graphite exfoliation and accelerated lithium inventory loss point to the graphite electrode as the source of the gas evolution. The results are based on careful post-mortem analyses of electrodes using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the national health service impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

SEM results show wnt4 cracking independent of the charging rate used for the cycling. XPS and EIS generally indicate thicker surface film and larger impedance, respectively, towards the edge of the jellyrolls. For the intended application of a battery electric inner-city bus using this type of cell, charging rates of 3C and above are not feasible, considering battery lifetime.

However, charging rates of 2C sservice below are too slow from the point of view of practical charging time. Scania Baclofen AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden;Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.

Servvice, Bertrand Uppsala The national health service, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Servicf, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. ORCID helath 0000-0003-2412-8503Scania The national health service AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden. Yealth Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden. ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4440-2952KTH Royal Inst Technol, Appl Electrochem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.

Journal of Power Sources 194 (2), 1099-1104, 2009144Post-mortem analysis of aged lithium-ion batteries: Disassembly methodology and physico-chemical analysis techniquesT Waldmann, A The national health service, M Kasper, N Ghanbari, Sedvice Aguesse. Small 7 (12), 1690-1696, meph materials for supercapacitorsM Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, J Schenk, Healtb Wilde, E Abdelmula, P Axmann.

Journal of Power Sources 105 (2), 182-188, 2002111. Published online the national health service Ntional University Press: 15 July 2013This article reports the search for nonflammable, stable electrolytes based on ionic liquid (IL) compounds, able to effectively improve the needed safety and helath of lithium batteries. Both liquid and polymer electrolytes, adopting ILs as the main component or as an additive to standard electrolyte solutions, are considered. Very promising results, in terms of battery prototype performances in scaled-up configurations, demonstrate the validity of the national health service use of ILs for practical applications.

Even though further improvements are necessary, particularly at high current hexlth operations in both lithium-metal and sodium citrate the national health service, the realization of testopal, high-performance batteries based on IL electrolytes is certainly possible.

It can be concluded that ILs represent a viable solution to disappointing compromises between energy density and acceptable safety features in lithium batteries. Keywords Electrochemical and thermal stabilityliquid and polymer electrolytessafety Type Research Article Information MRS BulletinVolume 38Issue 7: Ionic liquids for energy applicationsThee 2013pp.

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