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The position of the Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum at the time of click emission was calculated using the time of arrival difference (TOAD). Due to the vertical, linear organization of the hydrophones, the distance and depth of the whale were estimated but the direction in the horizontal plane could not be determined.

Cross correlations of all 120 possible receiver pairs were calculated and the channel identified to have best match with Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum receivers was used as a reference. For best localization accuracy, up to eight channels were excluded from Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum calculations for instances where localizations based on this receiver substantially differed from the remaining channel combinations. In most cases, position estimates were based on all 16 channels but a minimum of eight channels were used.

Manual assignment of clicks to echolocation sequences were based on the continuity between localized estimates of distance and depth, the sound pressure level recorded on each receiver-termed the received level (RL)-and inter-click interval (ICI). Clicks emitted beyond 150 m from Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum array were not considered due to high localization error at distances greater than ten times the array aperture (15 m).

Inconsistent positions, ICI, and RL values indicated overlapping click trains from more than one individual. Using these patterns, clicks were assigned to individuals as separate tracks.

Since multiple, successive echolocation sequences may be produced by the same whale, we used a conservative approach for identifying individuals using criteria of spatial and temporal proximity. Localized clicks were isolated, bandpass filtered (1 kHz 4th order high-pass and 240 kHz 4th order low-pass), and sensitivity for each receiver incorporated to calculate source properties.

Given echolocation clicks are very short and broadband, it is possible that the actual peak amplitude of the signal is Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum when sampling at 500 kHz.

However, the amplitude of the Hilbert envelope effectively approximates the absolute analog amplitude despite sampling limitations. The root mean square apparent source level (ASLrms) measured at 1 m was defined by the RLrms pressure over the -10 dB click duration. Given the vertical orientation of the linear hydrophone array, only the vertical beam width was calculated. To calculate the vertical -3 dB beam width, vertical beam patterns based on measured RL at each receiver were merged and aligned at the receiver of maximal intensity, identified as the center of the beam.

Using the approximated -3 dB beam width, the sonar beam directivity index (DI) was then calculated following the approximation by Zimmer et al. Therefore, clicks were identified as vertically on-axis when both the ventral and dorsal -3 dB beam width could be calculated within the array. Horizontal on-axis clicks were isolated by selecting the highest amplitude click that is part of a scan (i.

All other clicks were defined as being off-axis clicks. While up to eight channels were excluded for localization calculations, recordings from all 16 receivers were used for beam width estimates.

Schematic showing experimental setup and spatial criterion for on-axis click selection in the (A) vertical and (B) horizontal planes. The radiation pattern of an echolocation click is shown where the passive sonar equation was applied.

For each scanning sequence (i. Using these two datasets, the degree of click parameter distortion when introducing horizontal off-axis clicks was evaluated.

Once clicks were isolated for on-axis clicks in the vertical plane and on-axis clicks in both the vertical and horizontal planes, final calculations of mean sonar parameter values were determined.

To account for any minor hydrophone sensitivity fluctuations not explained in calibrations, all vertical breast augmentation breastfeeding after width measurements were interpolated to a resolution of 0.

The final -3 dB beam width was determined by averaging individual -3 dB beam width values from on-axis clicks. While the angle of the emitted click to the acoustic axis was unknown, we expected our ASL estimates to be close to the true source level by following the criteria outlined above journal of material science isolating on-axis clicks.

After on-axis clicks were selected, inter-click intervals (ICIs) were calculated for several conditions. ICIs are defined as the time interval in milliseconds between successive clicks. Median ICI values were oxervate for: 1) Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum interval preceding each selected on-axis click (pre-click), 2) the interval proceeding each on-axis click (post-click), 3) a pooled sample of pre- and post-click intervals, and 4) intervals between all clicks from same localized click sequences, or tracks, that on-axis clicks were selected from.

Beluga recordings were made at two locations on March 25th and 31st 2013 for a total of 42:40 and 20:45 minutes, respectively. Beluga data reported in this study were from one site and individual whales were localized for 4:42 minutes.

Each location was validated by comparing the least square localization estimate with hyperbolae for Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum hydrophone pairwise solution (see Fig 3).

All on-axis clicks originated from 12 of the 17 total separate tracks and were used for sonar parameter calculations. For angular variation analysis, 351 clicks were isolated as being non-edge clicks where the maximal intensity of the click was not recorded at one of the outermost receivers. We Florbetapir F 18 Injection (Amyvid)- Multum at minimum three to six medscape drug interaction belugas produced these tracks.

Each blue dot on the y-axis indicates a hydrophone in the vertical array spaced 1 m apart. The red star demarcates the localization estimate in depth and distance from the array based on the least squares model.

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