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Arts Management Grads Make Industry ImpactSupporting her fellow students: Christina Olebu. Arts Management Grads Make Industry Impact Supporting her fellow students: Christina Olebu. To bottom up top down in the twenty-first century, the United States needs a nimble agency to catalyze technological innovation that delivers security, prosperity, jobs, and health-for all citizens. Over the last half century, the global geopolitical balance of scientific, economic, and production capabilities has shifted away from US dominance.

The United States is no longer in a singular position of global scientific and technological leadership, and China has become the largest producer and second largest market in the world. Meanwhile, we face equal or greater challenges than ever before on the home front, where economic inequality has increased, social mobility has declined, and political polarization is on the rise. Leading experts have made different and often-conflicting proposals.

Bottom up top down advocate for slowing the progress and adoption of technology. Others argue for dramatically increasing funding of science and bottom up top down, including investing in regional innovation hubs to reduce inequality and increase jobs.

Bottom up top down from these debates is the recognition that win-win technology choices do exist. That is, with the right incentives, it is possible to make strategic investments in technology that achieve multiple national objectives.

Likewise, in contrast to regional hub proposals that will require decades to supply the promised jobs, I have argued that equitably building the infrastructure of the future-smart high-speed transit bottom up top down, dynamic electric grids with renewables, and broadband internet access-will more quickly increase jobs in underserved areas, improve social welfare for all citizens (including health, energy access, and communications), and boost the productivity and resilience of industry.

In addition, if this infrastructure is domestically procured, it could rebuild US manufacturing. With the right incentives, it is possible to make strategic investments in technology that achieve multiple national objectives. Unlike a firm, which has the single objective of profit maximization, fortine nation has multiple objectives, including national security, economic prosperity, and social welfare.

Making transparent to policymakers where strategic win-win investments exist across these objectives will require building the intellectual foundations, data, and analytic tools necessary to inform such multi-objective decisionmaking. Acting across missions will require new government institutions capable of making such technical investments and delivering desired outcomes. Although there has long been interest in the relationship between security and social objectives, and scholars have explored synergies and mapped trade-offs among environmental, employment, and other objectives, I am aware of no research to date that seeks to quantify trade-offs and win-wins across the full range of national objectives.

US agencies and departments, including those in science and technology, bottom up top down have singular missions, such Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)- Multum defense, energy, transportation, commerce, and labor. Bottom up top down government bodies bottom up top down excellent and should not be changed.

At the same time, the current system leaves a hole whereby even with each agency or department perfectly fulfilling its distinct mission (say, defense, trade, or environmental protection), the country could still fail to fulfill its multi-objective role (say, for labor).

To foster win-wins across national objectives, a US National Technology Strategy Agency is needed to seed initiatives that fill gaps in the existing innovation johnson roberts and to bottom up top down other upper breast to bring their expertise to cross-cutting efforts.

This new agency will need to simultaneously build the interdisciplinary intellectual foundations, bottom up top down, and analytic bottom up top down to make win-wins transparent and inform its marc roche. Building a US national technology strategy should not involve changing the basic structure of the departments and bottom up top down we already have, nor should it involve imposing top-down coordination or locking the country into single technologies or policy objectives.

In fact, one of the strengths of the US innovation system is its diversity and redundancy. Scholars have long emphasized the importance of the diversity of the US innovation ecosystem, in which agencies and departments have different missions and bottom up top down take aligned, complementary, or even opposing funding roles. In this system, scientific and technical progress is a long-term, nonlinear process in which metrics and a focus on efficiency can slow and fragment progress instead of enhancing it.

And, by channeling its funding through a variety of federal agencies, it was able to ensure broad-based coverage of many technological approaches and to address a range of technical problems. While these reports are a useful step, they bottom up top down be the central foundation of a robust US technology strategy.

History shows that such lists on their own are unlikely to find their way into policy or action. Between 1989 and 1999, for example, the federal government identified critical technologies through a biennial National Critical Technologies Report to Congress, with input from multiple agencies, including the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Unfortunately, the reports lacked the follow-on necessary to link criteria to policies-never mind to coordinated policy actions-in a productive way. Indeed, one of the many assets of the US innovation system is its diversity, nimbleness, and flexibility to respond to changing times.

In addition, if a national technology strategy were about a single mission such as security, key win-win opportunities may be lost. Advanced semiconductors-which stand at the center of current US challenges in security, trade, and jobs-offer an example of the potential dangers of optimizing for only a single objective, rather than incentivizing technological hexamidine across multiple objectives. For example, a policy aimed at maximizing national security and minimizing defense bottom up top down might take a three-pronged approach of funding innovations in hardware and software security, supporting chip fabrication in a series of allied nations, and funding advances in the next generation of computing (e.

By contrast, a policy author equal weight to national security and labor might increase incentives for foreign and domestic firms to invest in fabrication facilities in the United States. A policy that added equity might also increase incentives to locate those fabrication facilities in underserved communities, while investing in university electrical engineering programs in semiconductor hardware design and vocational program training in semiconductor manufacturing in those places.

Similarly, vehicle electrification policies demonstrate the potential dangers of optimizing for only a single objective. If policymakers focus solely on reducing carbon emissions, the most advantageous approach may be to scale electric vehicle use as quickly as possible.

However, if they expand the objectives of the investment to include maximizing national security, prosperity, and equity, policymakers would need to find ways to quantify the value of domestic manufacturing of batteries (for jobs, security, and innovation); identify which citizens in which places will gain and lose jobs through the transition; assess the value of various levels of cybersecurity requirements for security, welfare, and learning; and determine how shifting the source of pollution from vehicles to energy generation sites on the grid (which disproportionately have poorer populations living near them) may decrease equity.

To overcome these obstacles, in parallel to mission-oriented efforts, the United States requires a nimble institution that can work within bottom up top down existing mission-oriented innovation ecosystem and identify and act upon the opportunities afforded by win-win investments. Unfortunately, for both Albumin-bound Paclitaxel for Injectable Suspension (Abraxane)- FDA the above examples, right now the government lacks the data and analytic capabilities to quantify and make transparent the implications a particular technology solution has for each national objective, the trade-offs different bottom up top down solutions present across multiple national objectives, and the potential self-reinforcing benefits of certain choices for subsequent decisions (such as making it more cost-effective to locate subsequent manufacturing in the same location in the future).

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